The effects of time-and-scope advisement within a hypertext environment.

Klayder, James R., Ph.D., University of Kansas, 1993.


This study considered the effect of computerized time-and-scope advisement on learning while using a hypertext instructional environment. The content of the software was introductory theoretical computer science and was divided into six major sections. The study used two levels of time-and-scope advisement, static and dynamic. Static advisement consisted of a one page sheet of paper that explained student expectations. Dynamic advisement consisted of the paper explanation as well as three computerized features: (1) a constant display of time expectations for the current section, (2) a continually updated display of the current amount of time spent in the current section, and (3) a display of times remaining in advised sections which appears when the recommended time for a section had been exceeded.

College level introductory computer science students were randomly assigned to one of the two advisement groups. The advice given the students directed them to spend most of their efforts on three of the six major sections of the software. Data was collected for time on task, student opinions of user disorientation, and two achievement indices: factual and procedural questions.

A significant difference was found between the means of the dynamic (M = 55.9) and static (M = 40.5) advisement groups on the percent of advice followed (p =.001), indicating that learners tended to follow dynamic advice more than static advice. No significant difference was found on procedural questions; however, a significant difference was found between the dynamic (M = 6.4) and static (M = 5.1) advisement groups on the 12 factual questions of the achievement posttest (p =.027), indicating that computerized time-and-scope advisement may benefit learning in some hypertext instructional environments.