New communications technologies and distance education: A paradigm for the integration of video-based instruction.
Gunawardena, Charlotte Nirmalani, Ph.D., University of Kansas, 1988.
The purpose of this study was to develop a paradigm which provides guidelines for integrating video-based instruction into distance education courses to better serve the needs of adult learners. The paradigm describes instructional strategies and student support services that can be used by instructional designers to: (a) help distant students learn from the television component in a self-instructional course, and (b) integrate the television instruction with other materials in that course.
The instructional strategies and support services described in the paradigm are based on information synthesized from two sources: (1) a survey completed in 1987, of 49 postsecondary educational institutions in the United States that use communications technologies to deliver adult continuing and/or professional education, and (2) review of research related to: adult learning and current learning theories, learning from television, and the nature of distance learning.
The survey results provided information on: (a) current practices, future plans and problems related to the use of communications technologies for delivering distance instruction, (b) means used to integrate television programs with textual and other media, and (c) student support services provided by institutions, the effectiveness of these services, and the problems related to providing specific services.
The paradigm draws on both theoretical research and current practice and is based on two models of instruction: Gagne's (1977) model of the "relations between phases of learning and events of instruction," and Wohl and Tidhar's (1988) "macro and micro integrative teaching system of television viewing." The paradigm consists of three stages which follow a natural sequence of television viewing: "before," "during" and "after" viewing the program. The final stage provides for the "integration" of the television viewing experience where the program's information is integrated. Each stage of television viewing is matched up with the learning phases described by Gagne, and the instructional strategies and support services described are the "instructional events" that are designed to facilitate learning in each of these learning phases. Instructional strategies and support services derived from the review of literature and the survey are integrated into each stage, and the interrelationships between the television program, print and other media are delineated.