Learner and teacher controlled strategies for using video to teach oral skills.
El Menoufi, Misarah Ahmed, Ph.D., University of Kansas, 1988.
Ten video lessons, designed to train Arab students in the articulation of English sounds, were utilized to determine preferred methods of presenting video materials to language learners. The video lessons presented instruction and exercises in teaching tongue positions and movements of English phonology under the rubric, "articulatory settings." Two groups of Arabic ESL learners participated in the study. In one group, called the teacher control group, a traditional pedagogical approach was simulated with the teacher presenting the video lesson, stopping and moving the tape forward, reinforcing drills, offering explanations, corrections and guidance. In the second group, called student control group, the teacher acted as facilitator; that is, played the tape, encouraged student comment, discussion and questions but provided guidance, correction and instruction only when requested by the students. Group two students assumed the major initiative in the process of learning. During exercise sessions the students in both groups were videotaped and observed playbacks of their performance.
Following a pre- and post-test design, the TOEFL SPEAK Test and the Diagnostic Pronunciation Test were used to measure entry and exit oral speech performance. Results showed that: (1) video lessons can be used effectively in teaching English pronunciation and the Articulatory Setting data; (2) the student control group performed significantly better than the teacher control group in four subtests: fluency, vowels, vowels holistic, and consonants holistic, (3) when combined scores on students' performance were examined, there were no significant differences between the teacher control group and student control group.
The results supported the assumption that the use of the learner "video playback" controlled method in teaching English pronunciation merits further research. It was clearly the best method of the two used for fluency, vowels, vowels holistic and consonant holistic in this research. The experiment also showed that the Articulatory Setting theory could be rather useful in the acquisition of good pronunciation in the target language.